Amish JSHS Poster Presentation Landscape

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    Electrospinning is a technique used to fabricate polymer materials with exceptional properties that are useful in tissue engineering and drug delivery. These materials, however, are limited to the properties of the polymers used to make them, which has been a problem in recent years. Several studies show the use of coaxial electrospinning, a technique in which a core polymer flows inside a sheath polymer, forming a concentric morphology. This formation allows one to significantly modify the properties of electrospun polymer materials and improve their efficacy in biomedical engineering applications.

    Introduction

    Conclusions

    COAXIALLY ELECTROSPUN FIBROUS SCAFFOLDS CREATED BY A

    CONVENIENT, SELF-DEVELOPED ELECTROSPINNING APPARATUS Amish Patel

    Montville Township High School

    Acknowledgements

    Thanks to

    Dr. George Collins and his summer research discussion

    group for their advice and guidance

    Jennifer Moy for teaching me lab procedures and assisting

    me in the lab as well as Sahitya Allam for volunteering to

    do my SEM imaging for me.

    Mr. John Hoinowski for helping me construct the apparatus

    Dr. Michael Jaffe and the NJIT Department of Biomedical

    Engineering for providing amazing research experiences

    over the past two years

    Ms. Salazar, Dr. Brinkman, the Science Research course,

    and my parents for their support over the past three years

    The SEM images taken show evidence of zein fibers, which proves that the apparatus constructed successfully produced coaxial fibers. However, it is reasonable to doubt that conclusion due to the abundance of a film in the image, which is likely PCL. This film prevented us from using ImageJ software to measure the fiber diameter because the software could not discern between the background and fiber. More refined methods can be used to amend this problem, including using a different organic solvent to dissolve PCL, increasing the time given to allow PCL to dissolve, or using an electrospinnable polymer that dissolves easily. The fact that zein fibers were successfully formed proves the viability of the apparatus used in this study for use in tissue engineering and drug delivery studies. The apparatus constructed can be modified such that the coaxial orientation is implemented on a ForceSpinning system to drastically increase the production rate of these fibers so they can be used clinically. This is an important step in allowing electrospinning biomaterials to be used in everyday life.

    Introduction

    Needle

    Several studies show the use of coaxial electrospinning, a technique in which a core polymer flows inside a sheath polymer, forming a concentric morphology. This formation allows one to significantly modify the properties of electrospun polymer materials and improve their efficacy in biomedical engineering applications.

    Abstract

    Experimental Design Sheath Polymer Solution Poly(-caprolactone) (PCL) in

    methylene chloride

    Core Polymer Solution Zein protein in 80% ethanol and

    20% dH2O

    Needle

    Figure 1: Electrospinning a polymer within another polymer creates

    a concentric fiber morphology, seen in the cross-section on the right.

    Electrospinning has been used as a reliable method of creating polymer nanofibrous constructs for applications in fields such as tissue engineering and drug delivery. However, the use of a single polymer has limited the potential of these constructs. Coaxial electrospinning is a novel method that has prospects of increasing the versatility of electrospun materials. This version of electrospinning utilizes a coaxial fiber of concentric morphology with a core polymer within a sheath polymer. This coaxial fiber may be a better option in tissue engineering and drug delivery because it has extended capability as a result of using two different polymers. Studies have shown the use of this morphology in improving hydrophobicity, tensile strength, conductivity, and other crucial properties used in mimicking the environment of cells or delivering drugs. In this study, we design and construct a functional coaxial electrospinning apparatus to spin discernable fibers with a concentric, dual-phase morphology for tissue engineering and drug delivery applications. The apparatus is low cost and easy to operate.

    Figure 5: 1.50 mL/h

    Little evidence of fiber

    formation

    Small region in which fiber-

    like structures can be observed

    Figure 4: 1.25 mL/h

    Image shows the presence

    of fibers in some areas

    A film still covers most of

    the fibers

    All images show evidence of a film (likely to be PCL) obstructing the

    view of the fibers, yet they are still in a concentric morphology.

    Figure 6: 1.50 mL/h Images of coaxially electrospun

    materials after electrospinning

    Flow Rates Tested (mL/h)

    PCL Sheath 1.10 (Control)

    Zein Core 1.00 (Control) 1.25 1.50

    Materials were electrospun using the above flow rates

    (3 total materials electrospun)

    PCL sheath dissolved afterwards for analysis of core to

    confirm formation of concentric morphology

    Quantitative Analysis Find fiber diameter for each

    sample using ImageJ software

    Qualitative Analysis Observing the presence of

    fibers in SEM images

    Sheath Polymer Solution

    Core Polymer Solution

    A: 1.00 mL/h B: 1.25 mL/h C: 1.50 mL/h

    Results Methods Results

    Figure 3: 1.00 mL/h

    Fiber-like structure can be

    seen throughout

    Considered evidence of

    fibers

    Electric Field Surface

    Tension

    High Voltage

    Power Source

    Ground

    Solution-loaded

    syringes

    Construction of Apparatus

    2a

    Figure 2: a) Setup of apparatus

    during electrospinning. b) Core

    solution needle is inserted into

    sheath solution needle through

    a Luer male to female elbow

    adapter.

    Syringe with core

    solution

    Syringe with

    sheath solution

    Results

    Methods

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